We are experts in geophysics applied to numerous sectors

Vertical Electrical Sounding (VES)

Electrical resistivity is the measurement of the specific resistance of a given material. It is expressed in ohmmeters and represents the resistance measured between two plates that cover opposite sides of a 1 m cube. This test is commonly performed on natural terrain, during the design and planning of site-specific grounding systems.

The soil resistivity test is the most critical factor in electrical grounding design. This is true when talking about simple electrical design, dedicated low resistance grounding systems, or much more complex issues involved in studies on the increase of ground potential (GPR – Ground Potential Rise). Soil models are the foundation of all grounding designs and are developed from accurate soil resistivity tests.

Purpose and use:

  • Grounding system design for photovoltaic plants and substations
  • Geoelectric characterisation of the subsoil, detection of the rock bed
  • Hydrogeology
  • Detection of cavities
  • Characterisation of alluvial deposits

Ground penetration radar

Ground Penetration Radar (GPR), or Georadar, is a geophysical method that uses radar pulses to obtain images of the subsoil. GPR can be used in a variety of media, especially on granular floors, concrete slabs, walls, and buried structures. It can also detect objects, material changes, gaps, and cracks with accurate depth estimates. The standard governing the method is ASTM D6432-11.

Our GPR uses high frequency EM (electromagnetic) waves (from 80 to 950 MHz) to acquire information from the subsoil. The energy propagates to the ground from a transmitting antenna and is reflected back to a receiving antenna from the subsoil boundaries between media that have different EM properties. The reflected signals are recorded to produce a scan or trace of radar data. Typically, scans obtained as the antennas move over the ground surface are placed side-by-side to produce a radar profile or radargram.

Purpose and use:

  • Detection of buried structures, pipes, reinforced concrete
  • Archaeology
  • Superficial assessment of soil stratification
  • Analysis of pavements
  • Analysis of continuity and quality of materials

PASI MASW Seismograph – ReMi

GEA24 is a compact 24-channel seismograph (2 units can connect and make a total of 48 channels). With a 24-bit data acquisition card and a USB interface for an external PC.

  • Mod. GEA24
  • Geophones – 4.5Hz vertical
  • Piezoelectric starter
  • Shielded cable
  • Aluminium striking plate

Purpose and use:

  • Ideal for Seismic Refraction tests, MASW, MAAM, Re.Mi., Vs30, ESAC, etc.
  • DOWN-HOLE and CROSS-HOLE tests
  • Geological stratigraphy tests
  • Determination of the geometry of the rock bed
  • Soil compaction research
  • Evaluation of the different deposits

Kd2Pro and ProCheck (Decagon)

The KD2 Pro is a portable device that is used to measure thermal resistivity/conductivity. The KD-2 Pro basic package consists of a hand controller and a sensor kit. There are several sensors available for purchase that operators can insert into almost any material. Single-needle sensors measure thermal conductivity and resistivity while the double-needle sensor measures thermal conductivity, resistance, volumetric specific heat capacity, and diffusivity.

The ProCheck is capable of measuring soil moisture, temperature, and electrical conductivity, through 3 specially designed sensors.

Purpose and use Kd2Pro:

  • Measurement of material resistivity on-site or in laboratory
  • Sizing of cable networks

Purpose and use of ProCheck:

  • Temperature measurement
  • Measurement of humidity by direct measurement of the dielectric permittivity of the medium
  • Measurement of electrical conductivity by applying an alternating current between two electrodes and the resistance between them

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